From Wikipedia
Graphene (/ˈɡræfn/[1]) is an allotrope of carbon consisting of a single layer of atoms arranged in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice[2][3] nanostructure.[4] The name is derived from “graphite” and the suffix -ene, reflecting the fact that the graphite allotrope of carbon contains numerous double bonds.

Each atom in a graphene sheet is connected to its three nearest neighbors by a σ-bond, and contributes one electron to a conduction band that extends over the whole sheet. This is the same type of bonding seen in carbon nanotubes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and (partially) in fullerenes and glassy carbon.[5][6] These conduction bands make graphene a semimetal with unusual electronic properties that are best described by theories for massless relativistic particles.[2] Charge carriers in graphene show linear, rather than quadratic, dependence of energy on momentum, and field-effect transistors with graphene can be made that show bipolar conduction. Charge transport is ballistic over long distances; the material exhibits large quantum oscillations and large and nonlinear diamagnetism.[7] Graphene conducts heat and electricity very efficiently along its plane. The material strongly absorbs light of all visible wavelengths,[8][9] which accounts for the black color of graphite; yet a single graphene sheet is nearly transparent because of its extreme thinness. The material is also about 100 times stronger than would be the strongest steel of the same thickness.[10][11]

Photograph of a suspended graphene membrane in transmitted light. This one-atom-thick material can be seen with the naked eye because it absorbs approximately 2.3% of light.[9][8]

 

Scientists theorized the potential existence and production of graphene for decades. It has likely been unknowingly produced in small quantities for centuries, through the use of pencils and other similar applications of graphite. It was originally observed in electron microscopes in 1962, but studied only while supported on metal surfaces.[12]

In 2004, the material was rediscovered, isolated and investigated at the University of Manchester,[13][14] by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov. In 2010, Geim and Novoselov were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their “groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene”.[15] High-quality graphene proved to be surprisingly easy to isolate.

Graphene has become a valuable and useful nanomaterial due to its exceptionally high tensile strength, electrical conductivity, transparency, and being the thinnest two-dimensional material in the world.[4] The global market for graphene was $9 million in 2012,[16] with most of the demand from research and development in semiconductor, electronics, electric batteries,[17] and composites.

The IUPAC (International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry) recommends use of the name “graphite” for the three-dimensional material, and “graphene” only when the reactions, structural relations or other properties of individual layers are discussed.[18] A narrower definition, of “isolated or free-standing graphene” requires that the layer be sufficiently isolated from its environment,[19] but would include layers suspended or transferred to silicon dioxide or silicon carbide.[20]

Contributed by

Contact

dr elliott

You Might Like

Alexandra Bruce

View all posts

4 comments

  • We will soon not only have nothing on the shelves to buy, but what we do get is poison as well.
    Better wash that one down with…….. yeah, right, more poison.

  • How can we easily detect Graphene other than using magnet or becoming too techie?
    Sometimes I wish to I had a time machine so I can go look at people from a few hundred years or earlier.
    Histories and researches are written by bunches of criminals that we can almost trust in nothing…. other than seeing it by ourselves.
    We really need to get these criminals!

  • An fyi, watch the ‘fillers’ in food and supplements. There is a nano-particulate known as MCC, micro-crystalline cellulose which I’ve found in grated cheese and vitamin supplements. I first noticed it when suddenly those pound and larger bags of grated cheese showed up abour 7 mor 8 years ago. Convenience you know…
    I ran down one line and a nutritionist said it is used to get a more uniform distribution of ingredients generally difficult to evenly proportion in a cap or pill.
    I’ve now returned two different items due to MCC being on the ‘other ingredients’ list.
    Apparently the ‘buckyball’ sized nano’s get into cells and are so slippery that they cannot be removed by body processes. They are subsequently surrounded and become cysts, tumors or eventually cancerous…worth looking into.

  • LIKE I SAID BEFORE FOLKS…THIS IS JUST ANOTHER ATTEMPT TO “PLAY GOD” BY THE THE “AVATAR TYPES”.
    WE ALREADY “SEEN” WHAT THIS SO-CALLED “GRAPHITE” IS DOING TO PEOPLE…KILLING THEM???
    ANY “ATTEMPT” TO PLAY GOD, WILL HAVE DISASTROUS RESULTS…REMEMBER THE WORD “BLASPHEMY” FOLKS???
    REMEMBER “WHAT IT MEANT” FOR THE PERPETRATORS???

Kirk Elliott

dr elliott

Lockerdome

Most Viewed Posts

Categories