We join him at the little museum in the coastal town of Paracas, Peru, that displays numerous elongated skulls excavated locally of people who lived there 2,000-3,000 years ago, where he discusses the laboratory findings of each skull’s mitochondrial DNA.
Mitochondrial DNA, which is abbreviated as “mtDNA” is passed down from a mother to her offspring and it therefore tells you the haplogroup or genetic family and geographical origins of the most ancient traceable female ancestor associated with a given sample.
What distinguishes haplogroups from each other are genetic mutations. Molecular anthropologists have been tracing these mutations in ancient skeletons and comparing them to those in modern populations, yielding a lot of new information about the history of human migrations out of Africa and across the globe.
Without knowing any DNA information, the Paracas skulls are pretty Earth-shattering because they are clearly humanoid, yet they have major anatomical differences that indicate they are not the same species as you and me. Their foramen magnum, the hole where the skull joins the spine is located a full inch behind where it is found in Homo sapiens. Their eye sockets are much bigger and their jaws much more robust than those of Homo sapiens.
There are hundreds of Paracas remains stored in museums today, in addition to the textiles, ceramics and other cultural artifacts produced by them, preserved by the intensely dry conditions of coastal Peru. Similar skulls have been found all over the world, particularly in Crimea, on the northern coast of the Black Sea.
People of 100% Native American ancestry have Blood Type O. Foerster informs us of a suppressed study, which was brought to his attention, in which it was found that the blood type of the Paracas people was 43% Blood Type O, 28.5% Blood Type A, 7.1% Blood Type B and 21.4% Blood Type AB. That last figure is staggering, as AB is the rarest blood type, averaging 3% worldwide. Only the Ainu people of Japan have a number approaching this, with 18%.
The average height of the Paracas was between 5’10” and 6’2″, which 3,000 years ago was gargantuan. Many Paracas skulls still possess fine wavy reddish hair that is radically different from the thick straight black hair of local Amerindians. Foerster notes that the genetics for the Paracas’ red hair is appears in their DNA results.
Before going into the DNA results of the museum skulls, Foerster reminds us that all Amerindians belong to the mtDNA haplogroups A, B, C or D, which originated in Central Asia and Siberia and developed into many subclades after crossing the Bering Strait and arriving in the Americas.
Foerster leads us to a display case with three skulls and says that the mtDNA of an infant Paracas who perished at 18-22 months of age is haplotype U2e1, which is not Native American DNA. Haplogroup U is found across Northern and Eastern Europe, Central, Western and South Asia, as well as North Africa, the Horn of Africa and the Canary Islands. In modern times, its highest frequency is in the Indian Subcontinent. The skull on the left was similarly found to have mtDNA U2e, which is considered a European-specific subclade of U2 but also found in South India.
The mtDNA results of the middle skull from two labs came back with similar results, H and H1, the latter being a subclade of the former. Haplogroup H originated in the Middle East and it is present among 40% of ethnic Europeans. Subclade H1 peaks within the Basque population.
In other words, these Paracas skulls have mtDNA associated with the Caucasian skull phenotype pertaining to Europeans, Arabs, East Indians, North Africans and of course, Caucasians (Georgia, Chechnya, etc.). What remains to be explained is how the Paracas people arrived in South America and how their skulls, which are NOT even Homo sapiens in phenotype have the DNA of Caucasian Homo sapiens!
Findings about the Paracas skulls are so flabbergasting and they shatter so many assumptions that we have about human history, yet it seems that no tenured paleontologist will touch the topic with a ten-foot pole. It is a sad commentary on where science is today. On a happier note, Brien Foerster located a foundation that has put up the money to sequence the entire genome of two Paracas skulls, the results of which will be available in a couple of months!